Hur ska EU tackla “fejknyheter” och hatpropaganda på nätet?

Falska nyheter är inget nytt fenomen, men via sociala medier har de fått större spridning än någonsin tidigare. Nästan hälften av alla EU-medborgare (46 procent, 2016) får sina nyheter via sociala medier och tenderar att dela dem vidare utan faktakoll. Sex av tio nyheter delas utan att användarna läst igenom dem. Propaganda och hatiska kommentarer sprids också, och i veckan diskuterar parlamentet hur detta samhällshot kan bemötas. Se höjdpunkterna ur plenardebatten den 5 april i vår video.

Fejkade nyheter (fake news) utgörs av desinformation, fabricerade uppgifter eller ren bluff som framställs som journalistiska produkter med syfte att manipulera läsarna. Detta är en form av alternativ fakta och post-sanning, vilket av Oxford Dictionaries utsågs till 2016 års internationella ord. Begreppet definieras som ”ett ord som relaterar till eller betecknar omständigheter där objektiv fakta påverkar den allmänna opinionen mindre än känslor och personliga uppfattningar.”

Fejknyheter är inget nytt fenomen, men via sociala medier blir de mer personliga och lättare att sprida än någonsin tidigare. Under den amerikanska presidentvalkampanjen 2016 fick fejkade nyheter större viral spridning än riktiga nyheter, exempelvis i den falska historien om att påven stödde Donald Trumps kandidatur.

Flera skäl bakom spridningen

Denna typ av uppdiktade historier och fabricerad fakta sprids av flera skäl.

  • clickbait (sv. klickbete): material som sprids med det främsta syftet att generera klick och dra upp antalet besökare på en webbsida och därigenom öka annonsintäkterna
  • desinformation: vilseledande innehåll som skapats för att få läsarna eller tittarna att dra vissa slutsatser. Syftet är att misskreditera och underminera politiska motståndare. Detta verktyg används både av stater (exempelvis Ryssland i sin hybridkrigföring mot Ukraina) och av icke-statliga aktörer (vilket den amerikanska valkampanjen visade prov på).

Ingen enighet om lösningar

Som onsdagens plenardebatt visade så finns det ingen unison uppfattning i parlamentet om hur EU ska arbeta för att förhindra spridningen av falska nyheter och hatiska inlägg. Vissa ledamöter förespråkade eget ansvar, andra efterlyste rättsliga åtgärder och böter. Några ledamöter ville emellertid inte se någon skärpt lagstiftning alls och talade om försök att tysta avvikande politiska uppfattningar och gjorde referenser till Sanningsministeriet i George Orwells ”1984!”.

– Censur är inte ett alternativ när vi försöker tillämpa rättsstatens principer online, sade Marietje Schaake (ALDE, Nederländerna).

– Men jag känner mig inte heller trygg med att Silicon Valley eller Mark Zuckerberg får formge våra verkligheter eller våra sanningar.

Andrew Lewer (ECR, Storbritannien) varnade för att kampen mot hatiska nätuttalanden kan förefalla hedervärd men om det sker utan försiktighet kan det få diktatoriska drag.

– Vem avgör vad näthat är, frågade han retoriskt,


Skärpt lagstiftning eller frivilliga regler

Tanja Fajon (S&D, Slovenien) välkomnade EU-kommissionens uppförandekod mot näthat men uppmanade den också att presentera rättsliga åtgärder. Hon efterlyste böter för dem som inte plockar bort falska nyheter eller olagligt innehåll.

– Uppförandekoden är ett viktigt steg, men frivilliga regler är inte tillräckligt, sade hennes gruppkollega Josef Weidenholzer (S&D, Österrike).

Enligt Monika Hohlmeier (EPP, Tyskland) krävs avvägd lagstiftning för att bekämpa spridningen av falska nyheter.

– Vi har åsiktsfrihet men du har inte alternativa fakta, du har enbart fakta. Det är nödvändigt med rättsliga åtgärder på EU-nivå för att effektivt bemöta detta, sa hon.

Andra ledamöter ansåg att det var för naivt att tro att problemet skulle försvinna genom skärpta lagar.

– Om du ser till populismens orsaker, näthat etc, så börjar det inte på nätet (…), det finns rotat i samhället självt och det är samhällsklimatet vi måste förändra, sa Martina Michels (GUE/NGL, Tyskland)

Julia Reda (Greens/EFA, Tyskland) var också skeptisk:

– Ingen teknik är tillräckligt kvalificerad för att identifiera hatpropaganda. Genom att enbart förlita oss på teknologi så hjälper vi inte offren och vi tystar det fria ordet, sa hon.

Vägen framåt enligt Julia Reda vore att fokusera mer på brottsbekämpning avseende hatpropaganda och göra det lättare att anmäla brott på nätet.

EDIC-kollegor pratar om det politiska läget

Missa inte senaste avsnittet av Korrespondenterna på SVT-play. Våra franska EDIC-kollegor pratar om det politiska läget i landet inför det stundande valet. Mycket intressant.

https://www.svtplay.se/…/korrespondenterna-sasong-18-avsnit…

Del 5 av 10. Frankrikes vägval är Europas framtid. Högerpopulisten Marine Le Pen vill bli president – och krossa EU. Varför är hon så populär och varför sviker folket de gamla partierna? Programledare: Bengt Norborg.
SVTPLAY.SE

Seminarium 27 april: Fri kultur i det offentliga rummet!

Välkommen till seminarium på Intercult den 27 april kl 14-17, därefter mingel!

Torsdag 27 april kl 14-17 arrangerar Intercult  ett möte med temat Vikten av fri kultur i det svenska och europeiska offentliga rummet.
Hur kan institutioner och makthavare skapa förutsättningar för god offentlig konst/kultur – och vad är det? Hur bör institutioner fördela de medel de är satta att förvalta vad gäller kultur i det offentliga rummet? Kan kultur/konst i det offentliga rummet påverka demokrati? Kan kultur skapa förutsättningar för medborgardeltagande i politiska beslut? Kan känslan av tillhörighet stärkas genom att leverera och konsumera kultur i offentliga rum?

Mötet är ett samarbete mellan Intercult, Europa Direkt Intercult och Access Europa.

ANMÄL DIG DIREKT TILL 27 APRIL

PROGRAM – 27 april 2017

Plattformen ACCESS EUROPA är ett forum för internationell omvärldsbevakning, nätverkande och erfarenhetsutbyte i skapandet av internationella projekt. Projektägare och initiativtagare är INTERCULT. Plattformen ger sina medlemmar möjlighet att vara mer aktiva i europeiska sammanhang och att skapa fler framgångsrika projekt genom ansökningar till EUs kulturprogram och andra europeiska och internationella stödformer.

Under våren 2017 organiserar ACCESS EUROPA två plattformsmöten för sina medlemmar och vänner, hos oss på Intercult, Nytorgsgatan 15, ingång Sandbacksgatan 8. Den första mötet ägde rum den 16 mars. Läs mer om detta möte här 

Kulturrådet; Kreativa platser (källa www.kur.se)

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Codesign

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Åsa Jungnelius

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Jan Rydén

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Access Europe plattformsmöte 16 mars 2017 follow up

 

Tidigare plattformsmöten under 2017, torsdag 16 mars kl 14-17

Den 16 mars ägde rum ett möte med temat Konstnärernas villkor i Europa och deras relation med kulturinstitutioner. Hur ser villkoren och förutsättningarna ut för att jobba som konstnär/kulturutövare i Sverige och Europa idag – och hur bemöter man dessa förutsättningar från institutionernas sida? Vad måste offentligt finansierade kulturinstitutioner uppfylla för att lyckas med sitt samarbete med konstnärer? Hur korresponderar detta uppdrag med konstnärernas villkor, och vice versa? Hur kan konstnärer initiera internationella samarbeten på egen hand, och tillsammans med svenska och europeiska institutioner? Hur kan och bör samarbetet mellan institution och kulturutövare/konstnär se ut i Sverige och Europa – och hur kan det förbättras?

Under detta möte var syftet att skapa dialog mellan kulturinstitutioner och enskilda konstnärer för att skapa bättre förståelse för varandras förutsättningar och uppdrag; att stärka befintliga samarbeten och bereda en plattform för att skapa nya.

Plattformsmöten 16 mars 2017

 

Några bilder från plattformsmötet den 16 mars 2017

 

Mika Romanus VD Teaterförbundet

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Panelen med Dritero Kasapi(Kulturhuset/Stadsteatern), Mika Romanus (Teaterförbundet), Erik Krikortz (Reko, mm.), Bettina Pehrsson (Marabouparken), Daniel Werkmäster (Uppsala konstmuseum)

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Niklas Hellberg presenterar SMart produktionshus

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Political Statement on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Rome Treaties

Culture at the heart of a sustainable Europe

60 years ago, the treaties of Rome prepared the ground for the European Union. When celebrating their 60th anniversary in March this year, Member States will have the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to fundamental European values whilst creating a new understanding of a sustainable European project, deeply grounded in the European societies. This is essential in times of deep societal changes, when European citizens feel disconnected to the Union. It is vital in a time, when Europe faces major political challenges and needs to redefine its global positioning. Culture and the arts can help to strengthen the European project; therefore, the 33 signatories of this statement call on European institutions and Member States to include culture and the arts in the strategic goals of the Union.

Culture and the arts are the basis of the European project and moreover the essence of every civilizational development. They are substantially important to our identity, give meaning to human existence and reflect our shared history. European culture and the arts refer to 3000 years of shared cultural heritage while bringing contemporary relevance to people’s lives today. Flourishing in dialogue with other cultures, they reflect our “living together”, interconnect people in society, and transmit knowledge and values. Culture and the arts engage with the concerns of all citizens. They create a feeling of belonging and are the response to the cultural, social, economic and religious tensions existing inside societies, within the EU and outside European borders. Culture and the arts constitute a vital lever for developing the Union’s future project.

Culture and the arts as part of EU priorities

European values and human rights: Day to day, artists and art professionals defend the values addressed in the Charter of fundamental rights. Access to and participation in cultural life has been recognised as being a fundamental right for individuals, helping to create individual and collective fulfilment in societies.

Economic benefits and growth: The cultural sector is an excellent vector for economy and sustainable growth. As an example, in France, it brings an added value of € 57,8 bn to the economy, which is 3,2% of the sum of all added values. This “cultural GDP” is twice as high as the one for the telecommunication sector and 7 times larger than the equivalent of the automobile industry.

Education: Participation in structured art activities increase cognitive abilities and studies prove that students from low income families who take part in arts activities at school are three times more likely to get a degree than children with the same background who do not engage in arts activities in school.

Social cohesion: Participation in cultural activities is an essential tool for individuals and communities to communicate, to define and develop their own identity, to distinguish themselves from others. It allows isolated or marginalised people to acquire skills, selfconfidence and self-esteem.

Migration and citizenship: Culture and the arts teach individuals about complexity and contribute to the constructive experience of “otherness”. They reflect our “living together”, they stimulate us to celebrate differences and discover affinities. At local level artists and arts professionals are committed and get involved to tackle new societal challenges.

Innovation: New technological platforms are used to give access to culture to the global audience and vulnerable groups in society.

Health and wellbeing: People who attend cultural events are more likely to report good health and research has evidenced that a higher frequency of engagement with culture and the arts is generally associated with a higher level of wellbeing.

Regional and urban development: Culture is a powerful tool for urban regeneration, development and social cohesion. The presence of cultural activities is a major factor of the attractiveness of regions and cities – high-human-capital employees are keen to settle and they in turn stimulate regional growth.

External relations and neighbourhood policy: Cultural diplomacy strengthens the bilateral relations between European and third countries and builds bridges between societies– as it is a tool to exchange ideas and thereby fostering better mutual understanding. Cultural exchange creates an open environment within which political and social issues as well as liberal values can more easily be addressed.

International cooperation and development: The cultural dimension is a key element of any development strategy. In general, culture and the arts enable a sustainable social, economic and human development. They also facilitate the dialogue between cultures which appears to be an essential condition of peaceful coexistence.

Editor’s note:

The European Alliance for Culture and the Arts is a network of 33 European associations from cultural sectors and beyond, supported by more than 200 organisations working at national level. We urge the European institutions as well as Member States of the European Union to re-think their approach and put culture and the arts at the heart of the European project.

Why does culture matters? Find the response in concrete examples on our websites:

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Culture Action Europe among 28 networks selected for co-funding by EU

 

Creative Europe funding for networks just decided
Culture Action Europe (CAE) is happy to announce that our application has been selected for co-financing by the Creative Europe Programme – Cultural Networks strand. This strand aims to support the activities of networks aiming to reinforce the cultural and creative sectors’ capacity to operate transnationally and internationally, and to adapt to change. The project will be implemented between March 2017 and February 2021.

Please read more on:

CAE received EU funding

 

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Call for applications – The Iceland Academy of the arts

This twelve-month Masters programme is a question-led study that supports performance-related artists and art professionals to experiment and develop as practitioners and researchers through rigorous mentoring, extensive workshops and encounters with leading artists, thinkers and curators from around the world – as well as intensive peer-to-peer exchange. Over three semesters, artists enter into an environment geared towards extending and deepening their practice – as well as their capacity for generating discourse around that practice.
The Master’s programme takes each enrolled artist’s practice as the starting point for the study, and as such it is expected that each studying artist enters the course with a performance-related project
that they wish to develop and realise throughout the 12 months. This project should be specific to their interests, questions and concerns as an artist – and draw upon their pre-existing artistic practice.
Please read more on http://www.lhi.is/en/application-admission-process-mfa-performing-arts for details on how to apply
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Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action reach 100.000 researchers

We’re celebrating the 100 000th fellow supported by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions over the past 20 years. To mark the occasion, 30 highly promising researchers have been selected to showcase the EU’s actions dedicated to excellence and worldwide mobility in research.

 

“Celebrating the award of the 100 000th Marie Skłodowska-Curie fellowship is a great moment to recall the importance of this programme, which supports our brightest and best researchers in tackling the big societal challenges facing Europe. Marie Skłodowska-Curie paved the way for future generations of female researchers.

On the eve of International Women’s Day, I am especially proud that the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions pay particular attention to gender balance, and with more than 40% of fellowships awarded to female scientists, are the best performing part of Horizon 2020 with respect to gender”.

 

For the whole pressrelease follow the link: http://ec.europa.eu/research/mariecurieactions/news/20170307-msca-researchers-100-000_en

 

2017-msca-100-000-fellows

Call to join Baltic Audience Links

Let’s cooperate and build bridges between our cities:) – call to join the network

Baltic Audience Links is a small research that focuses on developing a Baltic network of cultural actors that apply participatory approach in developing urban spaces and contributing into development of the local communities. The result of the research will be an open growing data base (keeping technical solution as a future task) of cultural organisations in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, a toolbox of methods and principles and a set of cases in developing and supporting local networks through cultural actions. The research is conducted by Lithuanian partner, laboratory for urban games and research Laimikis.lt . According to them one of side-effects of the research is the emerging topic about the capacity of cultural actors in the Baltic states and the conditions of working in cultural sector, which could bring a useful debate about the changes needed in the management of the cultural sector in Lithuania and Latvia to sustain positive change that cultural organisations bring to the local communities.

We see Baltic Audience Links as a small cluster of the bigger network of the cultural innovators, that apply culture as a tool of positive change in the Baltic Sea Region. The partners of the project — Intercult and River // Cities platform (with the Baltic Cultural Center in Gdanks as a member of the network) have already contributed into the growing regional networks of cultural actors. We have already started connecting these “parts” of the regional network through joint events (Audience Development Links in Stockholm, February; Co-urbanism: cultural action and urban regeneration in Vilnius, April; Meeting in Gdansk, May).  

We will be happy to cooperate with existing networks and cultural actors. The call for Vilnius event is open (Laimikis is waiting for the abstracts till March 17, while the event will take place on April 7 in Vilnius). Also, there is an open call to register the cultural actors, active in participatory development by using this form (open till March 26): https://tinyurl.com/hcm8aku

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Audience Links Xchange conference on audience development – a follow up of the conference and seminar February 22 & 23 2017

The Audience Links Xchange conference offered a very good stage for our experts from the Baltic Sea Region to present the activities they are implementing to foster local participatory processes but also to network with other cultural professionals coming from all over Europe and to get in contact with good practices and constructive failures related to Audience Development. Also most of the co-partners from Europe in the project CORNERS, with Intercult as head partner, were present for internal meetings as well as taking part in the conference and works shop sessions. Both the sessions on the 22nd and on the 23rd of February were open to the public, especially to Swedish representatives of the cultural sector, meaning artists, cultural managers and policy makers.

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Round table discussion on Audience Development in the venue Champagnebaren at Södra Teatern.

We strongly believe in the strategic meaning of these open international kind of gatherings, since an event such as Audience Links Xchange enables cultural professionals to network with other key actors of the field but also to raise the awareness about very important topics as Audience Development among local, national and European policy makers. In particular, on Wednesday 22nd February, Jekaterina Lavrinec, Laimikis.lt, Lithuania delivered the findings from “Response and interim report Study on Audience Engagement in the Baltic Sea Region”.

 

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New and old friends at the gathering at Södra Teatern

 

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Jekaterina Lavrinec from Laimikis.lt presenting the findings of their study

Jekaterina evoked the image of Järnpojke, the sculpture of a little boy who looks at the moon by Liss Eriksson situated in Gamla Stan (Old Town of Stockholm), which is famous for being the smallest public monument of Stockholm (only 15 centimeters). Järnpojke is situated in a public space and many local people usually bring to the statue coins, candies, apples, knitted hats and scarfs. Jekaterina mentioned it as a symbol of the Baltic Audience Links approach, whose focus is about micro level social interconnection in public spaces.

Then Jekaterina presented the three principles upon which the “Study on Audience Engagement in the Baltic Sea Region” is built:

  1. Social practices are spatial practices, which implies that observing the space and the changes in the space, you can evaluate what kind of social relations take place in that space. Vice versa, by changing something in the space, you are able to evoke changes in the social interactions that happen there.
  2. Social micro practices are not stratified, namely social micro practices in public spaces are not pre-existing or pre-classified and they arise independently from social classes or groups.
  3. Cooperation itself is a craft to preserve, since we live in distilled modern societies where we are forgetting how to do things together.

 

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The audience listening to the results and findings of the study on Audience Development

Considering that the most frequently used word during the Audience Links Xchange conference had been “audience”, Jekaterina underlined that professionals working in the Baltic Sea Region, in the neighborhoods and in little communities, do not use the term “audience” but rather “people”, and they prefer “cooperation” and “togetherness” to “participation” or “engagement”. They ask to themselves “how do we cooperate with people?” instead of “how do we build the audience?”, being convinced that informal activation of local people is the key to cultural participation. The main challenge that these professionals working to build local ecosystems of participation have to face daily is related to sustainable development.

First, this is because NGOs are usually small and their budget is usually project based. As a consequence, they tend to scale down their activities and to implement very cheap solutions, which are not sustainable. One possible solution here is empowering local people so that they invest directly and develop themselves solutions to make the initiatives go on.

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Stockholm offered some snowy days during the conference

Second, sustainable development is very difficult when there is no strategic vision for cultural activities at a municipal and national level. Third, networking is a facilitator to scale up and develop sustainably, however very few actors understand the importance of building local networks in the Countries analyzed (Latvia, Lithuania, Poland). Finally, Jekaterina gave an insight about the process of Mapping that Baltic Audience Links is implementing as a tool for audience engagement in the Baltic Sea Region. The idea is to collect the profiles of organizations active in urban development and to draw the interconnections between them. In particular, the interest is on connections which are based on the common urban issues that organizations address, more than on their similar structure.

On Thursday 23rd February, we had the opportunity to learn about the experiences of some of the Baltic Sea Region professionals involved in fostering local participatory processes, coming from Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. You can read a short presentation of the participants here: http://www.intercult.se/baltic-audience-links-konferens/

 

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One of the presentations about audience development from Forms and shapes, Poland.

 

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Evelina Simkute talking about the Šilainiai Project

 

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Participants during Audience Links Xchange in round table work shops

 

Jekaterina, who moderated this session, asked the presenters to highlight which are the tools they are using when developing their initiatives.

The central questions that this session addressed were:

  • How to involve people and to cooperate with them within our initiatives?
  • How to consider our initiatives as a tool to bring people together and to bring some changes to the neighborhood, the city and the culturescape of our Countries?

The presentations offered a valuable insight about the Baltic Sea Region reality both to the other presenters and, especially, to the Swedish cultural professionals who joined the session, providing thorough description of the audience engagement tools currently used in the Baltic Sea Region and of their results.

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Anna Ochmann during here presentation

 

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The afternoon was full of interesting presentations from different organisations

You can watch the Baltic perspective – Neighborhoods session in Intercult’s Youtube channel 

Written by Intercult intern, Sofia Calzavara.